Friday, August 31, 2007

Hair Removal Information & Techniques

For decades now, women have been removing unwanted body hair, using different techniques. Not only does it add to the woman's beauty but it is better for her personal hygiene as well. Today getting rid of unwanted hair has become easier than ever. There are a number of easy techniques that you can use at home or you can visit a beauty parlor for professional treatment. Given below in some information about the different techniques that are available today.

  • Shaving: Shaving is a popular technique as it can be done at short notice and gives you instant results without much effort. Most women still continue to shave inspite of alternate techniques being available. This method is quick and cheap, though the hair grows back rapidly and when the hair grows back it is very coarse. You should soften the hair by washing the area with warm soapy water. Use light gentle strokes in the direction of the hair growth, to remove the hair. After you finish moisturize the skin. There are different kinds of razors, electrical, disposable, with twin blades and moisturizing strips. Choose one that suits you the best.
  • Hair Removal Creams: These creams are manufactured in such a way that they dissolve the hair. These creams have an ingredient called keratolytic that will damage the skin if it is left on for a long time. Use a patch test the first time you are using a cream. But there is no doubt that they make the skin hair free, smooth and soft.
  • Waxing: Though this method is a little painful, it is good to remove hair from the arms, legs and bikini line. Hair re-growth after waxing is slow and may take as much as two months. It is best to do a patch test for waxing as well. For best results one should continue waxing on a regular basis. Hair is removed from its root and when it re-grows it is finer. The problem with waxing is that the hair has to grow a little for waxing to be efficient. It helps to dust a little talcum powder on the area before waxing.
  • Sugaring: This technique is similar to waxing. Here the removal solution is warmed and then applied on the area required with the help of a palette knife. The solution is applied in the direction of the hair growth. Then a cotton strip is used to cover the solution and torn away in the opposite direction and thus the hair is removed. Hair re-growth takes about six to eight weeks and it is fine.
  • Electrolysis: This is a salon treatment and is expensive, but last longer and could be permanent as well. This requires a series of sittings if the results are to be good. A fine needle passes a very low electrical current into the hair follicle. After a session there will be slight swelling, redness and scarring which will take a few days to disappear.
  • Laser treatment: This is another salon-based treatment that is expensive too. You need a few sessions for good results. Black activating lotion is applied over the area, to enable the hair follicle to absorb the laser energy. In this technique the best results are got from people with thick body hair.
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Pleural Mesothelioma

Malignant pleural mesotheliomaPleural Mesothelioma as compared to a healthy lung. is the most common type of mesothelioma, making up over two-thirds of all cases. Pleural mesothelioma affects the lining of the lung and chest cavity known as the pleura.

The pleura is made up of the parietal and visceral pleura. The parietal pleura lines the chest wall and diaphragm while the visceral pleura lines the lungs.

Asbestos fibers work their way into the smallest passageways of the lungs and then into the pleura. Once there, an unknown chemical reaction causes cancerous cell development. As the cells begin to divide abnormally, the pleural lining thickens and excess fluid may accumulate. Pleural thickening gradually contracts the breathing space, causing shortness of breath—often the first symptom for pleural mesothelioma. The fluid, once carefully measured to allow smooth movement between the lungs and other organs, now causes increased pressure, further hindering breathing. This excess fluid is often seen on X-rays, and is referred to as a pleural effusion.

Pleural mesothelioma, like all kinds of mesothelioma, can be difficult to diagnose or easily misdiagnosed. If you are aware of prior asbestos exposure, it is important to inform your physician so that mesothelioma symptoms can be correctly identified.

While a diagnosis of pleural mesothelioma is certainly serious, it is not without options. A variety of new and novel mesothelioma treatments are available, as are a variety of clinical trials.

How does asbestos cause asbestosis?

Asbestos fibers inhaled into the lungs become imbedded in the delicate lining of the lungs. The fibers are so small and thin that they are able to beat the body's natural defenses. They accumulate in the lower portion of the lungs, becoming lodged into narrow airways. This causes scarring and inflammation, leading to a chronic cough and chest pain, the first symptoms of Asbestosis.

Asbestos, cancer, and smoking

While smoking increases your risk for a variety of other cancers, it does not by itself create a predisposition for pleural mesothelioma. In conjunction with asbestos exposure, however, smoking does increase the risk of developing pleural mesothelioma. The combination of smoking and asbestos exposure also increases the risk of developing lung cancer, as does prolonged exposure to asbestos.
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Peritoneal Mesothelioma Information

Peritoneal Mesothelioma -Cancer of the Stomach Lining

Peritoneum mesothelioma or Peritoneal mesothelioma is mesothelioma cancer in the lining that surrounds the abdomen (stomach).

Diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma is mesothelioma cancer in the lining that surrounds the abdomen (stomach).
Diffuse means that is the cancer is spread out.

Peritoneal or Peritoneum is a smooth membrane, which lines the cavity of the abdomen (stomach).
It helps to protect the contents of the abdomen. It also produces a lubricating fluid.
This helps the organs to move smoothly inside the abdomen as we move around.

Peritoneal mesothelioma accounts for approximately 10% of mesothelioma cases.

Symptoms of Peritoneal Mesothelioma

When the symptoms of peritoneal mesothelioma appear, they typically include abdominal pains,abdominal weakness, weight loss, loss of appetite, nausea, and abdominal swelling.

Fluid often accumulates in the peritoneal space, a condition known as ascites. Over time the wasting symptoms can become more and more severe.

The growing peritoneal mesothelioma tumor can exert increasing pressure on the organs in the abdomen, leading to bowel obstruction and distention.

If the peritoneal mesothelioma tumor presses upward, it can impair breathing capacity.

If the peritoneal mesothelioma tumor pushes against areas with many nerve fibers, and the bowel distends, the amount of pain can increase.
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Sunday, August 19, 2007

The Truth About LASIK Risks

While LASIK outcomes are overwhelmingly favorable, remember that there is still that fraction of less than 1% of people who do experience sometimes serious and ongoing vision problems following LASIK.

These are likely the people who operate anti-LASIK web sites filled with chilling warnings regarding dangers of the procedure, with nothing positive ever said.

You should rationally consider what unhappy LASIK patients have to say in light of your own needs and the fact that it is absolutely true that no surgical procedure is ever risk-free.

A very small number of LASIK patients with excellent vision based on eye chart testing still can have bothersome side effects.

For example, it is rare but possible that a patient may see 20/20 or better with uncorrected vision while at the same time having symptoms such as double vision (diplopia), unresolved dry eye, or difficulty seeing at night because of glare or halos around lights.

When you sign the LASIK consent form provided by your eye surgeon, you should do so with a full understanding that, even in the best of circumstances, there is a slight chance that something unintended could occur.

Even so, most problems eventually can be resolved
read more "The Truth About LASIK Risks"

LASIK Complication Rates Are Decreasing

Complications generally were more common in the early years of LASIK, when studies in the late 1990s indicated that up to 5% of people undergoing the procedure experienced some type of problem.

Experienced LASIK surgeons now report in trade journals that serious complication rates can be held well below 1%, but only if surgical candidates are selected very carefully.

You may be eliminated as a LASIK candidate, for example, if you have certain conditions such as pregnancy or diabetes that affect how well your eye heals.

Any health condition you have that might hamper your ability to heal should be mentioned and discussed in detail with your eye surgeon.

Large pupil sizes also might be risk factors for LASIK complications, because pupils in dark conditions could expand beyond the area of the eye that was treated.

Again, make sure you discuss any concerns about these or other matters with your eye surgeon.
[See a list of conditions that might contribute to adverse LASIK outcomes, or try taking our LASIK screening quiz.]
read more "LASIK Complication Rates Are Decreasing"

How Common Are LASIK Complications?

Public confidence in the LASIK procedure has grown in recent years because of a solid success rate involving millions of successful procedures in the United States.

With increasingly sophisticated technology used for the procedure, most LASIK outcomes these days are very favorable.

The U.S. military also has adopted widespread use of refractive surgery including LASIK to decrease reliance of troops on artificial lenses or eyewear as evidenced by the more than 16,000 U.S. Army personnel who underwent refractive surgery from 2000 through 2003.

Studies of these outcomes showed that 86% achieved 20/20 or better uncorrected vision and 98% achieved 20/40 or better, which legally is considered good enough for driving without eyewear or contact lenses.

"Reports of night vision difficulties, LASIK flap dislocation, and dry eye are infrequent, and do not seem to have a significant negative impact on military operations or individual readiness," researchers who studied these outcomes concluded in the February 2005 issue of Ophthalmology journal.
read more "How Common Are LASIK Complications?"

Lasik risks

If you are considering LASIK and worried that something could go wrong, you might take comfort in knowing that it's extremely rare for complications from this procedure to cause permanent, significant vision loss.

Also, many complications can be resolved through re-treatment or enhancements of the eye.

Selecting the right eye surgeon probably is the single most important step you can take to decrease any risks associated with LASIK.

An experienced, reputable surgeon will make sure you are properly screened to let you know up front if you aren't a good candidate for LASIK eye surgery.

Even if you are not qualified for LASIK, you might still be able to undergo vision correction through other means such as PRK, LASEK, or implantable lenses (phakic IOLs).

If you do decide to undergo LASIK, a responsible eye surgeon will work closely with you to resolve problems if they do develop
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Friday, August 17, 2007


This is an outpatient procedure that usually takes 5-10 minutes per eye.
The actual laser treatment usually takes a few seconds.
First you will lie on the motorized bed. The eyes are anesthetized with eye drops only. The head is positioned under the laser. A soft clip keeps the eyelids gently and comfortably open during the treatment.
You will be asked to look at a soothing green blinking light during the entire procedure.

During the treatment, an instrument called the microkeratome creates a corneal flap to make it a painless procedure.
The computerized Excimer laser uses a beam of light to gently reshape the cornea so as to alter its curvature to the desired extent.
The flap when replaced on the new corneal curvature allows images to be sharply focused on the retina. The goal is to eliminate or greatly reduce the dependence on glasses or contact lenses.

Once the procedure is completed, a soft contact lens or shield is sometimes placed on the eye. A post - procedure eye examination is performed and eye drops are prescribed. There may be mild discomfort for a few hours after the procedure.

Principles Of LASIK

Light falling on the cornea [the front surface of the eye] has a smooth curvature- referred to as a "wavefront".

As this smooth wavefront shape courses through the various optics of the eye, ocular aberrations [imperfections] are induced.

It results in an irregular wavefront curvature reaching the retinal surface, which degrades the retinal image quality.

An aberration-free eye would result in a smooth wavefront image on the retinal surface. Wavefront-guided customized LASIK, also referred to as "customized ablation" or custom LASIK performs corrections based on individual wavefront measurements.

Current refractive procedures such as traditional or standard LASIK correct lower order aberrations such as spherical and cylindrical numbers alone.

However, higher order aberrations affect the quality of vision and may not significantly affect the vision as read on the chart.

It is these subtle deviations from the ideal optical system, which can be corrected by wavefront procedures, and thereby improve image quality.
read more "Principles Of LASIK"


Some of the common reasons why people undergo LASIK or get rid of their spectacles and contact lenses are : lens intolerance
2.cosmetic reasons
3. social (marriage)
4.tired of wearing glasses
5. lifestyle activities that are inhibited due to glasses or lens wear such as outdoor sports like golf, football, water sports or hiking.
In some careers such as Merchant Navy and Airways it is a requirement to have 20/20 or 6/6 vision.
LASIK helps tremendously here.

Spectacles are cosmetically unappealing for some. There is a degree of distortion when looking through the periphery of the glasses, the field of vision is reduced and on leaving a cold room moisture can fog the glasses and blur vision for a few minutes. Hence glasses are unacceptable for certain careers. Contact lenses require motivation with great attention to hygiene during insertion and removal, failing which sight - threatening infections may result.
LASIK overcomes all these disadvantages.

Spectacles are cosmetically unappealing for some. There is a degree of distortion when looking through the periphery of the glasses, the field of vision is reduced and on leaving a cold room moisture can fog the glasses and blur vision for a few minutes. Hence glasses are unacceptable for certain careers. Contact lenses require motivation with great attention to hygiene during insertion and removal, failing which sight - threatening infections may result.
LASIK overcomes all these disadvantages.

What is LASIK?

By learning more about Lasik eye surgery and Custom LASIK surgey, you are taking the first important step towards achieving improved, normal, natural vision.
Most people who wear glasses and contact lenses wish that they did not have to.
Now, thanks to advanced laser eye surgery, there is an alternative to reduce your dependence on glasses or contact lenses, or possibly eliminate them completely.
LASIK surgery and Custom LASIK transformed peoples' lives. The ability to see better without the hassles of contact lenses or glasses has inspired patients to explore new opportunities in their personal lives, in their workplace and recreational activities.
LASIK patients have freed themselves from the many restrictions glasses or contact lenses can create and thus can enjoy this new found freedom with improved vision.
LASIK eye surgery and Custom Lasik are not for everyone.
You should make a well informed decision when choosing this treatment.
A LASIK surgeon can help you decide if LASIK or Custom Lasik is right for you.
If you decide that LASK Eye Surgery or Custom Lasik is right for you, you will join more than 4 million people in the United states who are already enjoying the benefits of LASIK Laser Eye Surgery, and we are confident that you will realize that LASIK Eye Surgery is truly a gift of sight.
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Tuesday, August 14, 2007

Surgical treatment of hernia.

What is laparoscopic hernia repair?

A number of factors have led to the recent development of a new method of repair called laparoscopic hernia repair. This technique is really an extension of a traditional mesh repair method (preperitoneal repair) that was usually used in patients who had already experienced several hernia recurrences at the same site. Previously, this mesh repair approach had required a separate incision somewhat removed from the target area. However, with the progressive development of the instruments and techniques for laparoscopic surgery, the same procedure can now be done with several relatively small incisions. This allows the surgeon to enter the space behind the hernia defect and place the mesh with minimal injury to the surface of the abdomen. The apparent advantages of this method include coverage of all the potential sites of groin hernia, which reduces the risks of recurrence while also decreasing the amount of post-surgical pain.
The potential disadvantages of the technique are: (1) a general anesthetic is required; (2) the risk of injury to blood vessels in the abdomen is increased; and (3) the long-term effects of placement of the mesh in this location remain unknown.
What about the use of a laser in hernia repair?

This is a relatively common question. It arises because, for a time, there were some surgeons marketing "Laser Hernia Repair." While a laser may have been used to make the incision and to separate the tissues, the laser really has no application in the repair of a hernia. It is impossible to perform the necessary structural repair with a laser, which is essentially a cutting tool. Hopes that somehow an incision made with a laser would significantly reduce pain have not been confirmed. This is probably because no matter how the incision is made, the majority of the post surgical pain arises from the deeper structures that require suturing.
read more "Surgical treatment of hernia."

Monday, August 13, 2007

Investigations & Treatment

If you have an obvious hernia, the doctor will not require any other tests (if you are healthy otherwise). If you have symptoms of a hernia (dull ache in groin or other body area with lifting or straining but without an obvious lump), the doctor may feel the area while increasing abdominal pressure (having you stand or cough). This action may make the hernia able to be felt. If you may have an indirect inguinal hernia, the doctor will feel for the potential pathway and look for a hernia by inverting the skin of the scrotum with his or her finger.

*Hernia Treatment-

Self care at home-
In general, all hernias should be repaired unless severe pre-existing medical conditions make surgery unsafe. The possible exception to this is a hernia with a large opening and a relatively small sac. Trusses and surgical belts or bindings may be helpful in holding back the protrusion of selected hernias when surgery is not possible or delayed. However, they should never be used in the case of femoral hernias.
Avoid activities that increase intra-abdominal pressure (lifting, coughing, or straining) that may cause the hernia to increase in size.

Medical Treatment

Treatment of a hernia depends on whether it is reducible or irreducible and possibly strangulated.
  • Reducible
    • In general, all hernias should be repaired to avoid the possibility of future intestinal strangulation.
    • If you have pre-existing medical conditions that would make surgery unsafe, your doctor may not repair your hernia but will watch it closely.
    • Rarely, your doctor may advise against surgery because of the special condition of your hernia.
      • Some hernias have or develop very large openings in the abdominal wall, and closing the opening is not possible because of its large size.
      • These kinds of hernias may be treated without surgery, perhaps using abdominal binders.
      • Some doctors feel that the hernias with large openings have a very low risk of strangulation and that surgery is not needed if you are relatively symptom free.

    • The treatment of every hernia is individualized, and a discussion of the risks and benefits of surgical versus nonsurgical management needs to take place.
  • Irreducible
    • All acutely irreducible hernias need emergency treatment because of the risk of strangulation.
    • An attempt to reduce (push back) the hernia will generally be made, often with medicine for pain and muscle relaxation.
    • If unsuccessful, emergency surgery is needed.
    • If successful, however, treatment depends on the length of the time that the hernia was irreducible.
      • If the intestinal contents of the hernia had the blood supply cut off, dead (gangrenous) bowel is possible in as little as 6 hours.
      • In cases where the hernia has been strangulated for an extended time, surgery is performed to check whether the intestine has died and repair the hernia.
      • In cases where the length of time that the hernia was irreducible was short and gangrenous bowel is not suspected, you may be discharged.

    • Because a hernia that becomes irreducible has a dramatically increased risk of doing so again, if you have had an irreducible hernia, you should have surgery sooner rather than later.
    • Occasionally, the long-term irreducible hernia is not a surgical emergency. These hernias, having passed the test of time without signs of strangulation, may be repaired electively.
read more "Investigations & Treatment"

Hernia Causes & Symptoms


Although one type of abdominal hernia can be present at birth (umbilical hernia), the others happen later in life. Some involve pathways formed during fetal development, existing openings in the abdominal cavity, or areas of abdominal wall weakness.
  • Any condition that increases the pressure of the abdominal cavity may contribute to the formation or worsening of a hernia.
    • Obesity
    • Heavy lifting
    • Coughing
    • Straining during a bowel movement or urination
    • Chronic lung disease
    • Fluid in the abdominal cavity
  • A family history of hernias can make you more likely to develop a hernia.
The signs and symptoms of a hernia can range from noticing a painless lump to the painful, tender, swollen protrusion of tissue that you are unable to push back into the abdomen—possibly a strangulated hernia.
  • Asymptomatic reducible hernia
    • New lump in the groin or other abdominal wall area
    • May ache but is not tender when touched
    • Sometimes pain precedes the discovery of the lump
    • Lump increases in size when standing or when abdominal pressure is increased (such as coughing)
    • May be reduced (pushed back into the abdomen) unless very large
  • Irreducible hernia
    • Usually painful enlargement of a previous hernia that cannot be returned into the abdominal cavity on its own or when you push it
    • Some may be long term without pain
    • Also known as incarcerated hernia
    • Can lead to strangulation
    • Signs and symptoms of bowel obstruction may occur, such as nausea and vomiting
  • Strangulated hernia
    • Irreducible hernia where the entrapped intestine has its blood supply cut off
    • Pain always present followed quickly by tenderness and sometimes symptoms of bowel obstruction (nausea and vomiting)
    • You may appear ill with or without fever
    • Surgical emergency
    • All strangulated hernias are irreducible (but all irreducible hernias are not strangulated)
read more "Hernia Causes & Symptoms"

Hernia Overview

A hernia occurs when the contents of a body cavity bulge out of the area where they are normally contained. These contents, usually portions of intestine or abdominal fatty tissue, are often enclosed in the thin membrane that naturally lines the inside of the cavity. Although the term hernia can be used for bulges in other areas, it most often is used to describe hernias of the lower torso (abdominal wall hernias).
Hernias by themselves usually are harmless, but nearly all have a potential risk of having their blood supply cut off (becoming strangulated). If the hernia sac contents have their blood supply cut off at the hernia opening in the abdominal wall, it becomes a medical and surgical emergency.
Different types of abdominal wall hernias include the following:
  • Inguinal hernia: Making up 75% of all abdominal wall hernias and occurring up to 25 times more often in men than women, these hernias are divided into 2 different types, direct and indirect. Both occur in the area of where the skin crease at the top of the thigh joins the torso (the inguinal crease), but they have slightly different origins. Both of these types of hernias can similarly appear as a bulge in the inguinal crease. Distinguishing between the direct and indirect hernia, however, is not that important because both are treated the same.
    • Indirect inguinal hernia: An indirect hernia follows the pathway that the testicles made during prebirth development. It descends from the abdomen into the scrotum. This pathway normally closes before birth but remains a possible place for a hernia. Sometimes the hernial sac may protrude into the scrotum. An indirect inguinal hernia may occur at any age but becomes more common as people age.
    • Direct inguinal hernia: The direct inguinal hernia occurs slightly to the inside of the site of the indirect hernia, in a place where the abdominal wall is naturally slightly thinner. It rarely will protrude into the scrotum. Unlike the indirect hernia, which can occur at any age, the direct hernia almost always occurs in the middle-aged and elderly because their abdominal walls weaken as they age.
  • Femoral hernia: The femoral canal is the way that the femoral artery, vein, and nerve leave the abdominal cavity to enter the thigh. Although normally a tight space, sometimes it becomes large enough to allow abdominal contents (usually intestine) into the canal. A femoral hernia causes a bulge below the inguinal crease in roughly the middle of the thigh. Rare and usually occurring in women, femoral hernias are particularly at risk of becoming irreducible and strangulated.
  • Umbilical hernia: These common hernias (10-30%) are often noted at birth as a protrusion at the bellybutton (the umbilicus). This is caused when an opening in the abdominal wall, which normally closes before birth, doesn’t close completely. If small (less than three quarters of an inch) this type of hernia usually closes gradually by age 2. Larger hernias and those that do not close by themselves usually require surgery at age 2-4 years. Even if the area is closed at birth, umbilical hernias can appear later in life because this spot remains a weaker place in the abdominal wall. Umbilical hernias most often appear later in elderly people and middle-aged women who have had children.
  • Incisional hernia: Abdominal surgery causes a flaw in the abdominal wall that must heal on its own. This flaw can create an area of weakness where a hernia may develop. This occurs after 2-10% of all abdominal surgeries, although some people are more at risk. After surgical repair, incisional hernias have a high rate of returning (20-45%).
  • Spigelian hernia: This rare hernia occurs along the edge of the rectus abdominus muscle, which is several inches to the side of the middle of the abdomen.
  • Obturator hernia: This extremely rare abdominal hernia happens mostly in women. This hernia protrudes from the pelvic cavity through an opening in your pelvic bone (obturator foramen). This will not show any bulge but can act like a bowel obstruction and cause nausea and vomiting.
  • Epigastric hernia: Occurring between the navel and the lower part of the rib cage in the midline of the abdomen, epigastric hernias are composed usually of fatty tissue and rarely contain intestine. Formed in an area of relative weakness of the abdominal wall, these hernias are often painless and unable to be pushed back into the abdomen when first discovered.
read more "Hernia Overview"